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AIDS and HIV Essentials

Patients won't just walk in and reveal their HIV status...

Protect yourself by knowing how to assess patient risk and signs of opportunistic infections—information readily available in this fourth, revised edition of AIDS and HIV Essentials.The constant flow of new data on HIV infection and AIDS and the rapid changes in clinical practice require all health care workers to keep up-to-date. This new edition covers the latest information on drugs, HIV transmission and prevention, antiretroviral therapies and their side effects, OSHA work practices, and CDC guidelines for postexposure prophylaxsis in the event of an on-the-job exposure to HIV.

AIDS and HIV Essentials

How to know what to order? This course comes as a booklet with the course and test all in one so you are only paying to take the test.  If you would like to receive an electronic copy of the booklet/test then choose our PDF email option! Would you rather receive a hard copy in the mail? Then choose the book/test option. Email courses will take their test online while those that choose the hard copy can either mail their test back in the envelop we provide for grading OR take your test right online for immediate grading.

AIDS and HIV Essentials

AIDS and HIV Essentials, 4th Edition
(book and test) Traditional Hardcopy

4 Hours     $35.00

AIDS and HIV Essentials, 4th Edition (Email version)
(book and test (Email) Online Only

4 Hours     $35.00

Last reviewed: January 1, 2015
Expires: January 1, 2018

AIDS and HIV Essentials

About the Authors

Cynthia G. Carmichael holds an MD and masters degrees in health and medical sciences, as well as anthropology. She is the lead physician at the North Richmond Center for Health, Contra Costa County, California, Health Services. She also teaches family practice residents and is on the faculty of the East Bay AIDS Education and Training Center.
During Dr. Carmichael's earlier professional career, she was principal investigator and director of the Florida AIDS Education and Training Center, and she served with many South Florida institutions, including the University of Miami, South Shore Hospital, and the Ann Marie Adker Overtown Community Health Center. She has been a clinical physician, supervisor of medical and nurse practitioner students and residents, director/consultant for a large comprehensive HIV/AIDS center, assistant professor of clinical family medicine and community health, and medical director of a state hurricane relief project.
Dr. Carmichael has published many articles in professional journals, focusing on prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and associated complications. She is co-author of HIV/AIDS Primary Care Handbook (1995 edition) and a contributor to The 5-Minute Clinical Consult. In addition to her publications, Dr. Carmichael has presented papers at HIV/AIDS workshops. A recognized authority on HIV/AIDS, she has lectured on the topic at state and national conferences and to local medical and nursing groups, for over ten years.

AIDS and HIV Essentials

Course Objectives

When you complete this course, you will take a written or online test that measures your ability to identify:

  1. The ways in which HIV is transmitted.
  2. The demographic characteristics of HIV infection and AIDS cases.
  3. How HIV invades humans and overwhelms immune systems.
  4. Signs and symptoms of HIV infection, including CD4 counts and viral loads.
  5. Diagnostic tests for HIV infection and procedures for initial clinical evaluations.
  6. Infection control precautions and guidelines for postexposure testing and prophylaxis.
  7. Optimal antiretroviral therapy methods and their effects.
  8. Common opportunistic illnesses affecting HIV-infected persons.
  9. Laws affecting HIV-infected persons and health care practices.

AIDS and HIV Essentials

Table of Contents

When you complete this course, you will take a written or online test that measures your ability to identify:

  • Chapter 1 Introduction
    The U.S. HIV/AIDS Epidemic
    The Risk of Complacency
    What You Can Do
  • Chapter 2 Epidemiology
    HIV/AIDS Worldwide
    U.S. Case Surveillance
    U.S. HIV/AIDS Cases
    U.S. HIV/AIDS Demographics
  • Chapter 3 HIV Pathophysiology
    Types of HIV
    HIV Replication
    HIV Infection Clinical Course
    Diagnosis of HIV Infection
    AIDS-Defining Criteria
    Progression to AIDS
    Disease-Resistant Patients
  • Chapter 4 HIV Transmission and Prevention
    Infectious Substances
    Sexual HIV Transmission
    Parenteral Transmission
    Perinatal Transmission
    Infection Control
  • Chapter 5 HIV Testing
    Routine HIV Screening
    Rationale for CDC Recommendations
    Summary of CDC Recommendations
    Diagnostic Testing
    Post-Test Counseling
    Reporting Test Results
    Documenting Test Results
  • Chapter 6 General Medical Care of Patients
    Physician's Initial Evaluation
    Vaccinations
    Other Clinical Management
    Assessing Immune Status
    Assessing Viral Burden
  • Chapter 7 Antiretroviral Therapy
    Goals of Therapy
    Antiretroviral-Resistant HIV
    When to Start Therapy
    What Therapy to Start
    Pregnancy and Antiretrovirals
    Occupational HIV Exposures
    Nonoccupational Exposures
    The Search for an Alternative
  • Chapter 8 Opportunistic Illnesses
    Common Illnesses
    Prophylaxis Methods
    Treatment Methods
  • Chapter 9 HIV/AIDS Legal Aspects
    HIV-Infected Health Care Workers
    Provision of Health Care
    HIPAA Privacy Protection
    HIV Testing
    Partner Notification
    HIV/AIDS Case Reporting
    Federal HIV/AIDS Programs
  • Definitions
    Appendix Medication Considerations
    Index
    References

AIDS and HIV Essentials

Table of Contents

Worldwide, an estimated 33 million persons are living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two thirds of HIV infections are in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The U.S. HIV/AIDS Epidemic

This text focuses on the HIV infection and AIDS (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the United States, where approximately 456,000 persons are currently living with AIDS. In addition, an estimated 256,000 persons in the United States are living with HIV infection that has not progressed to AIDS. Many of these people may not be aware that they are HIV-infected.

At least 583,300 persons have died of AIDS in the United States since the epidemic began in 1981. However, U.S. AIDS deaths started to decline in 1996. To a great extent, these decreases are the result of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The various HAART regimens use multiple potent drug combinations that suppress HIV replication (the ability of the virus to copy itself) in the body. This therapy permits some improvement in patients' deteriorating immune systems.

The Risk of Complacency

Despite the success of HAART, people must not become complacent; the HIV epidemic in the United States is far from over. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report continuing high-risk behaviors (especially unprotected sex), even among people found to be infected.

Some persons mistakenly assume that HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy are not infectious; others let preventive measures slide, in the erroneous belief that totally effective treatment for HIV infection now exists. HAART therapy cannot "cure" HIV infection or AIDS.

What You Can Do

All health care workers can help to educate patients about preventing HIV infection. Some can also assess patients' risk of infection, encourage patients to be tested for HIV infection, and provide care for patients who test HIV-positive.

Proper treatment can prolong life for HIV-infected individuals. The treatment goals are:

  1. Preserving and strengthening the immune system by suppressing HIV replication.
  2. Preventing opportunistic illnesses (e.g., Pneumocystis pneumonia, oral candidiasis, HIV wasting syndrome, and other conditions described in Chapter 8). These occur when patients' immune systems have deteriorated to levels at which they can no longer prevent certain microorganisms from causing such illnesses.
  3. Diagnosing and treating opportunistic illnesses early.
  4. Optimizing patients' quality of life, from the HIV incubation period through the final stages of AIDS.

This text presents the most recent information relating to these four goals. Particularly important are the data health care workers can use to educate afflicted patients. The more these patients learn about HIV infection, the better equipped they are to participate in health care decision-making.

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